What is ESG? Environmental, Social, and Governance

Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) Definition

What does ESG stand for? ESG stands for “Environmental, Social, and Governance,” and it is a set of criteria used to assess a company’s or investment’s sustainability and ethical impact.

Investors may use ESG data to make more informed investment decisions, and companies may adopt ESG principles to improve their sustainability reports, attract responsible investors, and build a positive reputation among consumers.

It’s important to note that there is no standardized ESG framework, and different organizations may use varying methodologies and criteria for assessment.

What is ESG?

The Environmental, Social, and Governance framework is a systematic approach used by investors, companies, and other stakeholders to evaluate and integrate Environmental, Social, and Governance factors into decision-making processes.

Coined in 2004 in the “Who Cares Wins” report, which was a joint initiative of financial institutions at the invitation of the United Nations, the concept of the ESG framework has evolved over time as a response to the growing recognition of the broader impact that companies have on society and the environment.

Today, the ESG framework has become a widely accepted and influential tool for investors, companies, and other stakeholders seeking to assess and promote sustainable investing and responsible business practices.

The components include:

  • Environmental (E): This aspect focuses on a company’s impact on the environment. It includes considerations such as energy efficiency, waste management, carbon footprint, and use of natural resources. Companies that prioritize environmentally friendly practices and sustainable operations are deemed to have strong environmental performance.
  • Social (S): The social component of ESG evaluates a company’s relationships with its employees, customers, communities, and other stakeholders. It encompasses issues such as labor practices, human rights, health and safety, diversity and inclusion, community relations, and product safety. Companies with positive social practices contribute to a more equitable and just society.
  • Governance (G): Governance refers to the structure and policies that guide a company’s decision-making processes. It includes aspects such as board composition, executive compensation, shareholder rights, and adherence to ethical business practices. Strong governance is essential for maintaining transparency, accountability, and the long-term success of a company.

Investors, financial analysts, and other stakeholders increasingly consider ESG factors when making investment decisions. Companies that prioritize ESG sustainability and ethical practices are seen as more attractive investments due to their potential for long-term success and positive social impact. ESG goals and considerations are often integrated into investment strategies, corporate reporting, and business decision-making processes to promote responsible and sustainable practices.

Why is ESG Important?

What is ESG? FAQs

Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) standards are a framework for sustainably operating an organization. These standards have grown in significance over the years.

Here are key reasons why implementing an ESG strategy is important:

  • Risk Management: ESG factors provide insights into potential risks that can impact a company’s long-term performance. Understanding and managing environmental and social risks and opportunities, as well as having strong governance practices, can help companies mitigate risks and enhance resilience.
  • Long-Term Value Creation: Companies that prioritize ESG considerations are often better positioned for long-term success. Sustainable and responsible business practices contribute to the creation of value over time, fostering stability and growth.
  • Investor Demand: Investors are increasingly considering ESG factors when making investment decisions. Many institutional investors and asset managers integrate Environmental, Social, and Governance criteria into their investment strategies, recognizing that companies with strict adherence to high Environmental, Social, and Governance standards may offer better financial returns and reduced risk.
  • Stakeholder Expectations: Customers, employees, and other stakeholders are placing greater importance on sustainability and ethical practices. Companies that align with these values are more likely to attract and retain customers, engage employees, and build positive relationships with communities.
  • Regulatory Compliance: Regulatory bodies in various regions are increasingly focusing on ESG-related disclosure and compliance requirements. Adhering to ESG standards not only helps companies meet regulatory expectations but also demonstrates a commitment to responsible business practices.
  • Competitive Advantage: Companies that integrate ESG considerations into their operations can gain a competitive advantage. This is particularly true in industries where sustainability and social responsibility are becoming differentiators in the eyes of consumers and investors.
  • Access to Capital: Access to capital is becoming tied to ESG performance. Companies that demonstrate strong corporate ESG practices may find it easier to attract investment and secure financing as more financial institutions incorporate ESG criteria into their lending and investment decisions.
  • Brand Reputation: ESG performance can significantly impact a company’s brand reputation. Positive ESG practices contribute to a positive image, trust, and credibility among consumers and the public. Conversely, poor ESG performance can lead to reputational damage.
  • Employee Engagement and Retention: Companies with strong ESG values often have higher employee engagement and retention rates. Employees are increasingly seeking purposeful work and want to be associated with companies that demonstrate a commitment to sustainability, diversity, and ethical practices.
  • Global Challenges: ESG factors are closely tied to addressing global challenges, such as climate change, social inequality, and ethical business conduct. Companies that actively contribute to solutions for these challenges are more likely to thrive in a changing and socially conscious world.

What Falls Under the Environmental Category?

Under the ESG framework, the Environmental category focuses on assessing a company’s impact on the natural environment and its commitment to sustainable practices. Key factors within the Environmental category include:

  • Climate Change: Assessment of a company’s impact on climate change, including its carbon footprint, emissions, and efforts to reduce environmental impact.
  • Natural Resource Use: Evaluation of a company’s use of natural resources and its commitment to sustainable practices.
  • Renewable Energy: Consideration of a company’s use and promotion of renewable energy sources.

What Falls Under the Social Category?

Under the ESG framework, the Social category focuses on evaluating a company’s impact on its employees, customers, communities, and other stakeholders. Key factors within the Social category include:

  • Labor Practices: Examination of a company’s employment practices, including labor relations, working conditions, and employee rights.
  • Diversity and Inclusion: Assessment of the company’s commitment to diversity, equity, and inclusion within its workforce and leadership.
  • Community Engagement: Evaluation of the company’s relationships with local communities and the social impact of its operations.
  • Product Safety and Quality: Consideration of the safety and quality of a company’s products or services.

What Falls Under the Governance Category?

Under the ESG framework, the Governance category focuses on evaluating the structure, processes, and practices that guide a company’s decision-making and oversight. Key factors within the Governance category include:

  • Board Structure and Independence: Evaluation of the composition, independence, and effectiveness of a company’s board of directors.
  • Executive Compensation: Assessment of the alignment between executive compensation and the company’s performance, as well as transparency in compensation practices.
  • Shareholder Rights: Consideration of the rights and protections afforded to shareholders.
  • Ethical Business Practices: Examination of the company’s commitment to ethical business conduct, including the prevention of corruption and fraud.

What are ESG Scores?

What is an ESG score? ESG scores are quantitative metrics that assess a company’s performance in the three key areas of Environmental, Social, and Governance. ESG scoring is designed to provide investors and stakeholders with a standardized and comparable way to evaluate the sustainability and ethical practices of companies.

Several organizations provide ESG scores, and each may use slightly different methodologies and criteria for assessment. Some well-known rating agencies that measure ESG compliance and provide ESG certification include:

  • MSCI ESG Ratings: MSCI evaluates companies based on a range of ESG criteria and assigns them a numerical score.
  • Sustainalytics: Sustainalytics provides ESG risk ratings and assessments, evaluating companies on a wide range of sustainability factors.
  • ISS ESG: Institutional Shareholder Services (ISS) assesses companies’ ESG performance and provides scores and analyses.
  • FTSE Russell: FTSE Russell offers ESG ratings and indices, assessing companies based on various sustainability criteria.

What is ESG Reporting?

ESG reporting refers to the process of disclosing a company’s performance in the key areas of Environmental, Social, and Governance. It involves the systematic disclosure of information related to a company’s sustainability practices, social responsibility initiatives, and governance structure.

ESG reporting is a means for companies to quantify the efficacy of their Environmental, Social, and Governance strategy and to communicate with investors, stakeholders, and the public about their commitment to sustainable and responsible business practices.

Key aspects of ESG reporting include:

  • Transparency: ESG reporting aims to provide transparent and comprehensive information about a company’s impact on the environment, its relationships with employees and communities, and the governance practices that guide decision-making.
  • Standardization: ESG reporting often follows established frameworks, standards, or guidelines to ensure consistency and comparability across different companies and industries. Common frameworks include the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB), and Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD).
  • Materiality: Companies typically focus on disclosing information that is material to their business and relevant to stakeholders. This involves identifying and prioritizing ESG issues that are significant to the company’s operations and the interests of its stakeholders.
  • Performance Metrics: ESG reports include the use of specific metrics and indicators to measure and report on a company’s ESG performance. These metrics may cover areas such as carbon emissions, diversity and inclusion, board composition, community engagement, and other relevant factors.
  • Integration with Financial Reporting: In some cases, companies integrate ESG reporting with their financial reporting, providing a more comprehensive picture of the company’s overall performance and risk profile.
  • Stakeholder Engagement: ESG reporting often involves engagement with various stakeholders, including investors, customers, employees, and regulatory bodies. Companies may seek input from stakeholders to understand their concerns and expectations.
  • Continuous Improvement: ESG reporting is not a one-time event but an ongoing process. Companies are encouraged to continuously assess and improve their ESG performance, update their disclosures, and adapt to changing expectations and industry standards.
  • Regulatory Compliance: In some jurisdictions, there are regulatory requirements for ESG reporting, and companies may need to comply with specific disclosure standards mandated by regulatory bodies.

ESG reporting is seen as a way for companies to demonstrate their commitment to sustainability, attract Socially Responsible Investing (SRI), and build trust with stakeholders. As interest in ESG factors continues to grow, more companies are recognizing the importance of transparent and standardized annual reporting to showcase the efficacy of their Environmental, Social, and Governance policy.

What are Some ESG Examples?

ESG examples cover a range of practices and initiatives that demonstrate a company’s commitment to sustainability, social responsibility, and ethical governance. Here are some specific examples across three categories:


Renewable Energy Use: Investing in and utilizing renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, or hydropower to reduce the carbon footprint.

Carbon Emissions Reduction: Setting and achieving targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve overall carbon efficiency.

Waste Reduction and Recycling: Implementing waste reduction programs, recycling initiatives, and adopting a circular economy approach to minimize environmental impact.

Water Conservation: Implementing water-efficient practices and technologies to minimize water usage and address water scarcity concerns.

Sustainable Supply Chain: Evaluating and improving the sustainability practices within the supply chain, including responsible sourcing and ethical procurement.

Biodiversity Conservation: Initiatives to protect and enhance biodiversity, such as habitat conservation, reforestation, and wildlife protection programs.

Green Building Practices: Constructing and operating buildings with environmentally friendly features, such as energy-efficient designs and materials.

Climate Risk Disclosure: Providing transparent and comprehensive disclosure of climate-related risks and strategies to mitigate those risks, as outlined and monitored by the IFRS Foundation.


Diversity and Inclusion Policies: Implementing policies and programs to promote diversity and inclusion within the workforce, leadership, and corporate culture.

Fair Labor Practices: Ensuring fair wages, reasonable working hours, and safe working conditions for employees.

Employee Training and Development: Investing in employee training, development, and well-being programs to support professional growth and job satisfaction.

Community Engagement: Engaging with local communities through philanthropy, volunteering, and social impact initiatives that contribute positively to community development.

Product Safety and Quality: Ensuring the safety, quality, and ethical production of products or services, with transparency in product information.

Human Rights Policies: Establishing policies and practices to respect and protect human rights throughout the supply chain.

Customer Privacy Protection: Implementing robust data protection measures to safeguard customer privacy and ensure the responsible handling of personal information.


Board Diversity: Ensuring diverse representation on the board of directors in terms of gender, ethnicity, and skills to enhance decision-making and corporate governance effectiveness.

Ethical Business Conduct: Establishing and adhering to a code of ethics and conduct that guides business practices and prevents corruption, bribery, and fraud.

Executive Compensation Alignment: Ensuring that executive compensation is aligned with the company’s performance and long-term shareholder value.

Shareholder Rights: Protecting and respecting the rights of shareholders, including mechanisms for engagement, voting, and transparency in communication.

Risk Management Policies: Implementing effective risk management policies and practices to identify and address potential risks to the business.

Transparency and Disclosure: Providing transparent and comprehensive reporting on financial and non-financial performance, including ESG metrics, following standardized reporting frameworks like Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) or Sustainability Accounting Standards Board (SASB).

Anti-Corruption Policies: Implementing policies and measures to prevent and address corruption, including compliance with anti-corruption laws and international standards.

These examples illustrate how companies can integrate ESG considerations into their business practices, demonstrating a commitment to corporate sustainability, social responsibility, and ethical governance.

Does Planful Offer an ESG Solution?

Planful’s Environmental, Social, and Governance solutions can help Controllers, CFOs, FP&A professionals, and sustainability leadership drive financial performance and fully operationalize ESG initiatives within one controlled platform for assured integrated reporting.

With Planful, easily gain a foundational understanding of the key principles and concepts of Environmental, Social, and Governance and why they are essential for modern businesses, then discover how to identify, collect, and analyze data related to ESG performance, enabling you to benchmark, set targets, and track progress.

See what’s possible with Planful. Get a demo today.

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